New strategies in the management of Parkinson's disease: a biological approach using a phospholipid precursor (CDP-choline).
Agnoli A, Ruggieri S, Denaro A, Bruno G.
CDP-choline, an intermediate in the phospholipid metabolic pathway supposed to improve the functionality of the dopamine (DA) system, was administered to parkinsonian patients in a double-blind cross-over study versus placebo.
All patients were already treated with L-dopa + dopa decarboxylase inhibitor. Clinical evaluations were carried out using the Webster Rating Scale (WRS), the Northwestern University Disability Scale (NUDS) and a semiquantitative rating scale for tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia. CDP-choline treatment showed a significant improvement of rigidity and bradykinesia and a less important amelioration of tremor. NUDS and WRS showed a similar positive result. Comparing the results obtained by placebo, we found that the actual clinical efficacy of CDP-choline regards mainly bradykinesia and rigidity (23 and 33% improvement, respectively). The positive effect of CDP-choline on
Parkinsonian patients already treated with L-dopa + dopa decarboxylase inhibitor stands for a possible action on the DA receptor through an activation of the phospholipid metabolism.
choline may be useful in the treatment of Alzheimer's
choline therapeutic effects in Alzheimer's
choline choline effects on cognition in patients with
choline significant improvement in Alzheimer's
after 1 month
choline improved mental performance in Alzheimer's
choline improvement in glaucoma
choline therapeutic value in the treatment of glaucoma
choline improved retinal responses in patients with glaucoma
choline in acute ischemic stroke
choline randomized trial in acute ischemic stroke
choline treatment after traumatic brain injury
choline action and effects in ischemic brain injury